International Kraepelin Society

International Kraepelin Society

The International Kraepelin Society has been formed to advance research and education on the methods, theories and diagnostic principles of Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926). Kraepelin was the founder of modern scientific psychiatry, the first to identify the two major psychoses, schizophrenia (dementia praecox) and manic-depression, and also the great reformer of the modern psychiatric institution.

In spite of these unparalleled achievements, Kraepelin’s name is virtually unknown to the public and the details and extent of his achievements are equally unknown even to the vast majority of clinicians in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. In spite of his status as the unrecognized “Mendel of Psychiatry,” Kraepelin has been ranked in a recent reference text as one of the 100 greatest scientists in history (The Scientific 100 : A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, by J. Simmons) in recognition of the fact that in large measure Kraepelin’s diagnostic system forms the basis for the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, on which all psychiatric diagnoses of patients are based.

Mozart had his Salieri, Plato had his Aristotle, Schopenhauer his Hegel, and Kraepelin…his Freud. Freud referred disorders of the mind principally to early childhood experiences and mysterious psychic forces, while Kraepelin believed such disorders could only be explained by the controlled experimental methods of neuroscience and genetics and the tried and true diagnostic techniques of biological medicine. Kraepelin dominated psychiatry through the first decades of the 20th century, and then faded into near-complete obscurity. In contrast to Kraepelin’s acknowledgment that psychiatry has no effective treatments or cures for most psychiatric disorders, Freud’s star rose when he claimed to be able to cure psychiatric disorders. Only in the last couple of decades has Kraepelin’s work been rediscovered by the leading researchers in psychiatry, who in large measure based the DSM-III and DSM-IV on Kraepelin’s approach to the classification of mental disorders.
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International Kraepelin Society
email: Inquiries@kraepelin.org

KRAEPELIN LINKS
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DEMENTIA PRAECOX, NOT SCHIZOPHRENIA

“Dementia praecox to schizophrenia: the first 100 years.”
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci; 1999 Aug;53(4):437-48

ABSTRACT: The historical roots of dementia praecox and schizophrenia are described in the context of current nosology and continuing controversies surrounding this nosology. Relevant books and journal articles were reviewed. The information was obtained through computer searches and cross-references from previously published papers. If English translations of foreign language articles were available, they were used; if not, the cross-references were consulted. The psychoses have existed as diagnostic categories from ancient times although their names have changed. Initially, these disorders were considered diseases of the brain, a concept that was swept aside in the United States, influenced by European-derived psychodynamic theories. American clinicians and investigators simply accepted these theories, showing little interest in testing their underlying principles. In contrast, a narrower Kraepelinian approach was adopted outside the United States, and attempts were made to refine its nosology. Because current data supports a central nervous system aetiology for schizophrenia, the concept of dementia praecox warrants resurrection. The authors suggest abandoning the term schizophrenia in favour of the more broad and generic term dementia praecox. Replacing ‘schizophrenia’ with ‘dementia praecox’ in the 21st century will facilitate further research and help clarify the nosology of various brain disorders currently included in the schizophrenias.
–Adityanjee, Aderibigbe YA, Theodoridis D, Vieweg VR.
Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University
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KRAEPELIN, NOT FREUD
A HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY by Edward Shorter, John Wiley & Sons, 1997 (p. 100):

“It is Kraepelin, not Freud, who is the central figure in the history of psychiatry. Freud…did not see patients with psychotic illness. His doctrine of psychoanalysis, based on intuitive leaps of fantasy, did not stand the test of time. By contrast, Kraepelin…provided the single most significant insight that the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries had to offer into major psychiatric illness: that there are several principal types, that they have very different courses, and that their nature may be appreciated through the systematic study of large numbers of cases.”
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UNIVERSITY OF HEIDELBERG
KRAEPELIN’S CLINICAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN HEIDELBERG
http://www.psychologie.uni-heidelberg.de/cfg/instber-2a.html
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KRAEPELIN’S PARAPHRENIA REDISCOVERED & REDEFINED

Paraphrenia, a term introduced by Kraepelin (1) to describe “the uncertain group between paranoia and dementia praecox” is now excluded from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) series, though the “uncertain group” continues to create problems in diagnosis. In modern terms, paraphrenia should lie on a spectrum between delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia, and one of the present authors consistently advocates its return to the diagnostic canon (2).

Conclusion: It is possible to define and recognize paraphrenia; it is a viable diagnostic entity. Further research would benefit paraphrenia and schizophrenia patients. Cases in this study have been coded to permit follow-up investigations.
Arun V Ravindran, MD, PhD, et al
Director of Research, Royal Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario.
http://www.cpa-apc.org/Subscriptions/Archives/1999/Mar/munro.htm
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KRAEPELIN’S DISCOVERY OF ALZHEIMER’s DISEASE

One of the most decisive factors in [Alzheimer’s] life was Emil Kraepelin, the real [discoverer] of the Alzheimer dementia. A critical-historical attitude should be especially maintained if one looks at Alzheimer’s dementia, Alzheimer’s famous ”discovery”. Many of today’s psychiatrists would assume that the description of Alzheimer’s disease was the scientific climax of Alzheimer’s professional life and the ultimate aim of his research. However, this view is the result of our modern knowledge. Kraepelin’s [discovery]of Alzheimer’s disease in 1909 was not based on a large number of ”objective” findings, but on his idea of ”nosological entities”.
Matthias M Weber, MD
Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie
Weber, MW: Journal of Psychiatric Research. 31(6):635-643, 1997
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PSYCHIATRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIPZIG

Eine kurze Geschichte der Leipziger Universitätspsychiatrie
Including: Wilhelm Erb, Wilhelm Wundt and Emil Kraepelin
http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~psy/geschi.htm#kraep1
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UNITING KRAEPELIN AND BLEULER

The psychology of schizophrenia and the biology of temporal lobe abnormalities
Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry
Robert W. McCarley, MD, et al
http://splweb.bwh.harvard.edu:8000/pages/papers/szrev.rwm/szrevrwm.html
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HOW WAS SCHIZOPHRENIA DISCOVERED?

Schizophrenia is typically a catastrophic illness that begins in adolescence or early adulthood. Although severe psychotic disorders have been recognized for centuries, as evidenced by descriptions in medical writings and literary portrayals, the classification of psychotic disorders into specific forms such as manic-depressive illness or schizophrenia only occurred approximately one hundred years ago.
Because the symptoms of schizophrenia often produce severe incapacity, the illness was originally called “dementia praecox” by Emil Kraepelin.
University of Iowa Mental Health Clinical Research Center
Director: Nancy C. Andreasen, M.D., Ph.D.
http://iowa-mhcrc.psychiatry.uiowa.edu/new/MHCRC_Web_Page/schizdisc
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EMIL KRAEPELIN’S REVIEWS for the “Literarische Centralblatt fur Deutschland”
Steinberg H
Psychiatr Prax 2000 Apr;27(3):119-26
Abstract in English [original article in German]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db;=PubMed&list;_uids=10812635&dopt;=Abstract
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Essai sur la Schizophrénie entre

KRAEPELIN et BLEULER:
un fantasme et une pirouette théorique.
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/christian.boullangier/Schizofantasm/schizopirouet.html
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KLINIK UND POLIKLINIK FÜR PSYCHIATRIE
des Universitätsklinikums Leipzig
http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~psy/kraep.html
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KRAEPELIN
Encyclopedia Britannica (entry contains some errors)
http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/6/0,5716,47256,00.html
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HISTOIRE : De Kraepelin ŕ Bleuler
http://alainriouxpq.iquebec.com/alainriouxpq/shztxt2.htm
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LINKS SOBRE KRAEPELIN
http://www.herreros.com.ar/kraepeli.htm
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TO HONOR KRAEPELIN
From Symptoms to Pathology in the Diagnosis of Mental Illness

It fell to Kraepelin to systematically apply the medical model to the diagnosis of psychopathology, attempting a classification of mental illnesses that went beyond presenting symptoms (Havens, 1965; Shorter, 1997). But in this respect, Kraepelin’s program largely failed. Beginning in the fifth edition (1896) of his Textbook, and culminating in the seventh and penultimate edition (the second edition to be translated into English), Kraepelin acknowledged that classification in terms of pathological anatomy was impossible, given the present state of medical knowledge. His second choice, classification by etiology, also failed: Kraepelin freely admitted that most of the etiologies given in his text were speculative and tentative. In an attempt to avoid classification by symptoms, Kraepelin fell back on classification by course and prognosis: what made the manic-depressive psychoses alike, and different from the dementias, was not so much the difference between affective and cognitive symptoms, but rather that manic-depressive patients tended to improve while demented patients tended to deteriorate.

By focusing on the course of illness, in the absence of definitive knowledge of pathology or etiology, Kraepelin hoped to put the psychiatric nosology on a firmer scientific basis. In the final analysis, however, information about course is not particularly useful in diagnosing a patient who is in the acute stage of mental illness. Put bluntly, it is not much help to be able to say, after the disease has run its course, “Oh, that’s what he had!”.
John F. Kihlstrom, PhD
http://www.institute-shot.com/Psychiatric%20Diagnosis.htm
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WHAT WOULD ADOLF MEYER HAVE THOUGHT OF THE NEO-KRAEPELINIAN APPROACH?

Because of the problem of diagnostic unreliability in psychiatry, there has been a trend over recent years to create explicit diagnostic criteria, such as the Research Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-III. This movement has been called neo-Kraepelinian (Klerman, 1978) as it promotes many of the ideas associated with the views of Kraepelin, regarded as the founder of modern psychiatry. It favours a biological approach and arose partially as a response to attacks on the “medical model” in psychiatry.
http://www.uea.ac.uk/~wp276/meyer.htm
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NEO-KRAEPELINIANS

Blashfield, R. K. The classification of psychopathology:
Neo-Kraepelinian and quantitative approaches.
New York: Plenum (1985)
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0306414058/qid%3D979498135/107-0697569-0112518
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THE NEO-KRAEPELINIANS

When compared to the four principles that Wilson asserted as fitting Meyer’s biopsychosocial approach to psychopathology, the assumptions of the neo-Kraepelinians represented a distinctly different approach. The neo-Kraepelians emphasized the empiricism of science; a biological approach to mental disorders; the improvement of diagnostic systems; and the repudiation of psychoanalytic views of mental disorders.

In the almost thirty years since the publication of the Feighner [1972] paper, the neo-Kraepelinians and their emphasis on a return to the biological basis of psychiatry has become the ascendant model. Meyer’s biopsychosocial model is rarely discussed now, except as a historical note. With the rapid advances in the neurosciences, the development of a broad array of psychotropic medications, and the emphasis on short-term, low cost treatments in a managed health care system, the biological approach to psychopathology is clearly dominant. In the 1972 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, a substantial number of the articles were devoted to topics of interest to psychoanalysts. In the 1998 issue of the same journal, there are almost no articles with psychoanalytic focus.
http://www.auburn.edu/~blashrk/neo-kraepelinians.htm
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TIMELINE: MADNESS AND MEDICINE

Timeline for History of Science Harvard University: Madness and Medicine
(Incorrect date for publication of Kraepelin Textbook 6th Edition)
http://www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/~hs175/exams/timeline.htm
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PRESENILE DEMENTIA, KRAEPELIN TYPE (Entry # 1)
[OMIM 176600]
This is a rare syndrome, affecting patients as early as their third decade. It is present in families, has male-only inheritance, and causes dementia with catatonia. Its other name is “non-specific familial pre-senile dementia”.
http://www.alzforum.org/members/research/gene/

PRESENILE DEMENTIA, KRAEPELIN TYPE (Entry # 2)
A nonspecific type of familial presenile dementia apparently distinct from both Alzheimer disease (104300) and Pick disease (172700) was described by Schaumburg and Suzuki (1968) in 6 persons in 3 generations with male-to-male transmission. The histologic changes corresponded to those described for Kraepelin disease (‘catatonia of Kraepelin’). In 4 of the 6 persons, onset was at a very early age: 28, 31, 33 and 34 years.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Omim/dispmim?176600
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SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF EMIL KRAEPELIN
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BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MAX PLANCK PSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTE

Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie
Max-Planck-Institut für Neurobiologie
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BIBLIOGRAPHIE VON EMIL KRAEPELIN
German Publications of Kraepelin’s works
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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF KRAEPELIN’s WORKS
Most are out of print
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Clinical psychiatry / by Emil Kraepelin.
A facsimile reproduction with an introd. by Eric T. Carlson.
[Excerpts from Psychiatry : a textbook for students and physicians]
Delmar, N.Y. : Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints, 1981.
xvi, 562 p., [12] leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
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Dementia praecox and paraphrenia / by Emil Kraepelin.
Translated by R. Mary Barclay. Edited by George M. Robertson.
Huntington, N.Y., R. E. Krieger Pub. Co., 1971.
xxiv, 331 p. illus., facsims. 23 cm.
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General paresis / by Emil Kraepelin
Authorized English translation by J.W. Moore, M.D. New York,
The Journal of nervous and mental disease publishng company, 1913.
v, 200 p. illus., diagrs. 25 cm.
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Lectures on clinical psychiatry / by Emil Kraepelin.
Revised and edited by Thomas Johnstone.
A facsimile of the 1904 ed., with a new introd. by Oskar Diethelm.
[Einführung in die psychiatrische Klinik. English translation]
New York, Hafner Pub. Co., 1968.
xv, 308 p. 24 cm.
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Manic-depressive insanity and paranoia / by Emil Kraepelin.
New York : Arno Press, 1976.
xv, 280 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
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Memoirs / by Emil Kraepelin.
Edited by H. Hippius, G. Peters, D. Ploog in collaboration with P. Hoff, A. Kreuter;
translated by Cheryl Wooding-Deane
[Lebenserinnerungen. English translation]
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, c1987.
xii, 270 p. : ill., facsims., ports. ; 21 cm.
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One hundred years of psychiatry / by Emil Kraepelin.
Translated by Wade Baskin
New York, Philosophical Library [1962]
163 p. illus. 22 cm.
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Psychiatry : a textbook for students and physicians / Emil Kraepelin ; edited and with an introduction by Jacques M. Quen.
Canton, MA : Science History Publications/U.S.A., c1990.
2 volumes : ill. ; 25 cm.

PROGRAMS
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The International Kraepelin Society will organize meetings and publish Proceedings and Monographs in order to advance knowledge of psychiatric disorders and expand on the investigations initiated by Kraepelin. The Society will sponsor research and historical studies on Kraepelin’s contribution to clinical psychiatry and psychology, and also on his philosophical and experimental principles. For the most part, meetings being organized by the Society will be held in conjunction with major conferences in the fields of psychiatry, psychology and philosophy.
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Vital Signs · Journal of The Art of Medicine
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REVIEWS
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Spring 2001 BOOKS RECEIVED/REQUESTED FOR REVIEW
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Mood Genes·ISBN 0716729431
Troublesome Disguises·ISBN 0865426740
Discovering the History of Psychiatry·ISBN: 0195077393
The Greatest Benefit to Mankind·ISBN: 0393046346
Hand and Brain·ISBN 0127594418
From Soul to Mind·ISBN 0300075812
Philosophy of Psychology·ISBN 0761953043
Psychology·ISBN:1557985243
The History of Psychiatry· ISBN: 1568217544
A History of Clinical Psychiatry·ISBN: 0814712592
The History of Mental Symptoms·ISBN: 0521437369
Mental Ills and Bodily Cures·ISBN: 0520205472
Keeping America Sane·1998
Psychiatrists·ISBN 0964890917
Masters of Bedlam·ISBN: 0691034117
A History of Psychiatry·ISBN: 0471245313
Healing the Mind·ISBN: 0393702227
A History of Psychology·ISBN: 0205268579
Dysthymia and the Spectrum·ISBN: 1572300892
The Schizophrenias·ISBN: 0826192904
Encyclopedia of Mental Health·ISBN: 0122266757
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders·ISBN: 0824798562
Origins and Development of Schizophrenia·ISBN: 1557984972
Encyclopedia of Psychological Disorders·ISBN: 0791049027
The Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia·ISBN: 0816022402
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder·ISBN: 1572303352
Schizophrenia and Manic-Depressive Disorder·ISBN: 0465072852
Hoax and Reality·ISBN: 1568218540
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© 2000-2001 International Kraepelin Society. All rights reserved. No portion of any page of this document or internet site may be reproduced without written permission in advance from the President of the International Kraepelin Society.

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To receive information about the
Society
contact:

International Kraepelin Society
S. W. Eros, MD
President
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International Kraepelin Society
P.O. Box 688
New Hampton, NY USA 10958-0688
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Tel: (845)-374-2008

email: INQUIRIES@kraepelin.org
website: www.kraepelin.org

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